Prove that there exist 2 unconnected cities that we can connect without increasing the number of clustered groups.

**Solution**

Proof by contradiction. Suppose we cannot connect two cities without increasing the number of clustered groups.

Let $n=257$ be the number of cities. Take all possible groups of 10 cities, ${n \choose 10 }$ of them, and count how many segments there are among them. Of course, if the group is clustered, it should have ${10 \choose 2} = 45$ segments. Let $S$ be the sum of unconnected pairs, over all possible groups of 10 cities.

Now let us count $S$ in a different way. Take 2 connected cities $A$ and $B$. The segment $AB$ contributes to $S$ only when the chosen group of 10 cities include $AB$, so this segment is counted ${n-2 \choose 8}$ times. Because there are 2018 segments, then $S$ must be:

$$S = {n-2 \choose 8}.(2018)$$

Note that $2018 < 2020 = 8n-36$, so $S < {n-2 \choose 8}.(8n-26)$. That means, on average, there are $S / {n \choose 10 }$ segments.